Posts tagged aperture
When you are using a camera, the media you are recording the image to is fixed in the amount of light required to create the image. This is referred to as the ISO, or speed, and is represented by a number such as ISO 400, 200, etc. The exposure to the light is controlled by the shutter speed and the aperture f/stop. This is a simple explanation of the f/stop mechanism.
First one must understand that the shutter speed and f/stop directly affect each other. The slower the shutter speed, the longer the exposure to the light. So, in order to prevent flooding, or overexposure, of the medium, the amount of the light must be reduced. This is done using the aperture, or f/stop, by decreasing the amount of area of the lens that is open to the light. The inverse is also true, if you wanted to take a photo of an athlete in motion but wanted very clear, crisp photos, you could use a very fast shutter speed, and a very wide aperture.
Now you know what it’s used for, here’s what the f/stop numbers mean. The numbers printed on your camera lens can range anywhere from f/1.0 to f/128, but this isn’t all of them, by any means. This number represents the ratio between the focal length of the lens, and the diameter of the aperture opening. For example, a 50mm lens with a 25mm aperture is a f/2 lens, and a 100mm lens with the same 25mm aperture setting is a f/4. Most every lens manufactured today has several f/stop adjustments available to the photographer, but the values printed on the barrels may be a rounded off, for simplicity.
For this example, keep the above in mind. If a person wanted to fill a container with water, but the container had a small hole at the entrance, the flow of the water must be reduced. This will require more time to fill the container, but if the opening is larger, the flow can be increased, thus allowing for faster filling. So, if the shutter speed is slow, i.e. 1/8, the f/stop number must be increased to allow less light in, to prevent overexposure. The opposite is true if the shutter speed is perhaps 1/125th the f/stop number should decrease, to allow more light in. This means that if the bottom number i=on the shutter speed gets bigger, the f/stop number should get smaller.
One last thing that should be mentioned is that the wider the aperture rating on a lens, the more expensive, and bulky they tend to be. there are lenses on the market, both new, and used, with maximum apertures of f/1.2, and as low as f/.95, but the costs of lenses like these can be prohibitive. That coupled with the fact that the f/.95 lens requires the use of a tri-pod, make these almost exclusively professional equipment.
Digital photography has given almost anyone with a camera the potential to become a creative photographer. These days even compact cameras offer features that once were only found on ’serious’ SLR cameras.
The trouble is, most people who have grown up with point-and-shoot cameras have very little idea what these features are all about. After buying a good digital camera with the best intentions, they soon give up and switch to automatic.
Are the settings on your camera really so hard to understand? Of course not, but it can seem that way at the start, especially if they are not explained to you in simple terms you can understand.
The two settings you need to understand here are Aperture and Shutter Speed. Aperture is the size of the hole that lets the light in for your photo. The larger the hole, the brighter the exposure. The shutter speed is the length of time given to each exposure. Slower shutter speeds allow more light, resulting in a brighter exposure. By finding the right balance of these two settings, you and/or your camera control whether your photo is overexposed, underexposed, or just right.
With your camera set to Manual mode, you control both settings. If this seems daunting, you can start with the semi-automatic functions, Aperture Priority and Shutter Priority.
How do the semi-automatic functions work? They allow you to choose one setting (either aperture or shutter speed), while the camera chooses the other. That way you can be a little bit creative, but with the safety net of knowing your camera will make sure your exposure is correct. It is a good halfway point between automatic and manual.
Let’s start with Aperture Priority. This function allows you to set the aperture on your camera; the camera chooses the shutter speed for you.
The aperture controls depth of field (the area in front and behind the main subject that will be in focus). When you set a wide aperture, you reduce the depth of field; when you choose a smaller aperture, you will have a greater depth of field.
Obviously when you change the aperture, you change the level of light in your exposure. The camera will compensate by adjusting the shutter speed. So when you operate your camera in Aperture Priority mode, you have control over the depth of field, but your camera still makes sure your exposure is correct.
The catch here is, you still need to keep track of what your shutter speed is doing. If it falls to a very slow speed, you need to use a tripod to eliminate camera vibrations.
How about Shutter Priority? Here you set the shutter speed, and the camera balances the exposure by setting the aperture. This is a great system if you are working with moving subjects. Sometimes you may want to freeze a moving subject with a fast shutter speed, or create a motion effect with a slower shutter speed. Meanwhile the camera compensates for the changes in shutter speed by adjusting the aperture.
Shutter priority may be a better option for some beginners. It is much easier to stay aware of when to use your tripod. Also, when your camera manages the aperture, it controls the depth of field, which is not usually as critical as the shutter speed. You may not always get exactly what you want, but you won’t get any catastrophic failures.
These two semi-automatic functions appear to offer you the best of both worlds. You get to be a bit creative, and try out your photography skills, while your camera’s high-tech hardware makes sure you don’t overexpose or underexpose the photo. So far, it sounds perfect.
So why should you learn to operate your camera in Manual mode? The answer is simple.
Aperture Priority and Shutter Priority both work on the assumption that your camera’s reading of the exposure is always correct. Unfortunately, that is not always true. In fact, sometimes you have to be smarter than your camera.
Imagine you are photographing a flower in the sun, but the background is in the shade. This simple situation can be all it takes to confuse your camera. It may expose for the background, brightening the exposure and totally overexposing the flower.
In this situation, semi-automatic settings will not solve the problem. You could try to darken the exposure by (for example) closing the aperture. The camera would simply adjust the shutter speed to compensate, maintaining what it believes to be the correct exposure.
What you need to do is switch the camera to Manual. Then you can adjust both settings and create an image that is slightly darker, bringing your flowers into perfect exposure.
This is not just a hypothetical exercise. Situations arise all the time that require you to out-think your camera. If you understand how to operate your manual settings, you can take control, and you won’t be left blaming your camera for ‘the one that got away.’
Compact digital cameras are brilliant, offering more versatility and restraint than many conventional compact haze cameras. However, like most high-tech plans, you may find it frustrating if you aren’t receiving the outcome you want.
For best outcome you should understand how to get the best out of your camera in every shooting clause and know how to stop shared mistakes. Here’s a conduct to help you forestall the top 5 digital photography no-nos.
Digital photography tipped # 1- Avoid undue disparity
On living with harsh sunlight many digital similes can be precious by very high compare.Like untold shadow areas and very snappish highlights.
Excessive brightness is more problematic with a debit of conscript in the burned out areas, for example the brides dress or filthy coastline.
You can accepted ultimate differ from photo control software (such as Adobe Photoshop or Ulead Photoimpact) but even the most sophisticated software cannot truthful highlights by adding factor that was not captured by the camera.
preventive techniques: To preclude high disparity recall the following tips
- If your camera offers compare adjustment contain, exclusive the colors choice, not high disparity backdrop
- Select the low location in cheerful conditions which will help neutralise diverge and evaluate the highlights and shadow areas. You can forever raise the disparity in situation production. (Photo contact)
- Make surely your focus is situated in even lighting or better still, a sheltered quarter and not in diverse lighting (both sun and shadow across the theme)
- If your photographing people or subjects that are close by (1-2m), use your cameras in built update to cram in shadow areas. You will essential to disable the certain jiffy sort and instead change the bulletin on form on.
Note. Your cameras sparkle may not be real if your topic is a long space away, so try to get close to your issue or standing manually so the sun is behind you when charming the photo.
Overexposing merely compounds the conundrum so catch the exposure on your LCD protect and if you think it is overexposed, adjust the exposure with exposure compensation (e.g. -0.5) and take it again. That’s the beauty of digital!!!
The best shooting conditions: Naturally, exposure and differ will not be a catch if the lighting conditions are right to launch with. Overcast or somewhat unclear time are best for creating even lighting conditions for photos with balanced differ.
Also the light is regularly softer in the early morning and deceased morning and it is easier to locate manually with the sun behind you when it is junior in the sky and not directly overhead.
Digital photography tipped # 2- Use the appropriate camera settings
Digital cameras, especially high end guess models regularly multitude an enormous scope of adjustment options besides exposure and contrast check, such as fair tally dominate, ISO, serration and digital property.
If you have invested in a report-packed camera, you will be tempted to use them all but if you don’t understand them or use the mistaken site you may be disappointed with the results. Here’s a short overview of some of the important skin.
- White remainder is a figure that is very important to the end answer of your photograph. White total refers to the colour temperature of the light and the damage venue can stroll your complete icon an extent of unnatural colours (e.g. blonde, green or blue).
Many cameras have different pre-set sallow weigh settings for fluorescent, tungsten, burst, sunlight or auto. The routine white rest location takes out the guess work a lot of the time and is regularly the most convenient situation.
Again you can always hardship the white balance by merely charming an examine look beforehand and checking it on your cameras LCD monitor.
- For coating cameras, ISO referred to the pace of the dart and the total of the squirt grain. High ISO films (400/800) were good for low light situations or sharp action sport photography.
Low ISO (100/200) films were good for regular lighting conditions and portraits as you could enlarge the likeness lacking it looking rough.
SO for digital adopts the same colors as covering. In digital cameras, ISO refers to the sensitivity of the antenna to light or the sign to racket ratio.
The signify means the figure that you want and clatter refers to the raze of pixilation: what you don’t want. When shooting in low light you could desire a high ISO (400 or 800) so the sensor’s sensitivity is heightened and can capture a better exposure, but reminisce that this may exhibit more digital sound than a low ISO (100 or 200).
Another allowance of digital cameras is that you can change the ISO for each figure you take to match the lighting term. With a layer camera, the ISO had to stay the same for the whole pictures which inevitably intended that you could be trapped with the criminal ISO movie in your camera.
- Some cameras allocate you to adjust the saturation, colour tonal variety and serration. These features are worthwhile experimenting with as they can enhance some metaphors with great results.
Portraits can look more flattering with less roughness, for example. Nevertheless often birth-looking imagery are achieved lacking these enhancements or the same effects can be achieved in postproduction using control software.
So play around with these features first before you open taking important photos. Once you understand the realize you can use it only when you want to get that outcome.
- preventive rate: Digital photography allows you to experiment without killing money on mist or processing so take help of this and take as many photos as you can, analyzing what mechanism and what doesn’t. This is often the best way to enhance your photography.
Digital photography tipped # 3 Use good photographic techniques
Digital photography applies the same principles and techniques as are worn in conventional photography. A good digital photo desires to coalesce creativity and strict dexterity. It wants a piquant, interesting issue and a good composition besides nominal aspects of exposure, focus, vigor-of-ground, lighting and contrast.
Often the summit and shoot tailor of photography may be smart and cool but also, a bit hit and neglect and achieving a good result becomes a matter of fortune somewhat than flare.
- Use gravity of pasture to enhance your portraits and landscape shots. Depth of pasture refers to the limit that is in focus, and it is achieved by selecting the appropriate crack site.
For landscapes you should have most extent of province (large number in the opening site) for sharp focus in both the foreground and the background/horizon.
For successful portraits you should have a shallow strength of area, so the business is in focus while the background is out of focus (a small number in the aperture situation).
Most cameras will have depiction and landscape fashion settings which take the appropriate aperture setting for you and all you have to do marshal the persona.
- preventive system: The digital camera’s rear test can be worn instead of the viewfinder and gives a more accurate preview of the figure. It could also be held up to an arm’s span away to give you added flexibility in composition and perspective.
Be creative and shoot from a scope of different angles with up high or down low. Always ensure that your specialty is intense and interesting and your composition is not muddled or includes something that detracts from the idea (a daggy drivel bin in an exquisite landscape, for example).
Take the same photo from different angles, zoom in for tighter framing, or capture it in both horizontal and landscape orientation.
- Always look at habits of improving the visual interest of the figure using the camera’s functions. It will only price you time, not money. Remember with digital, you can always remove the ones you don’t like and you must only download and design the best ones!
Digital photography tipped # 4- Don’t lose-use the flaunt
The speed is a valuable appear of any camera, allowing you the flexibility to photograph subjects in low light or add impart second to capture conscript in shadow areas, but it has its limitations.
The current is only effective within a certain breadth and cannot illuminate subjects at aloofness (for example photographing the bride and tutor from the back of the church) or a large subject (the interior of an infinite mineral cave). The second should never be used when photographing fireworks or soil flute windows.
- preventive system: When the flash is ineffective or unavailable, try using a support. All cameras have a standard stand screw thread on the heart for use with a trivet.
This allows you to achieve longer exposures without the annoying haze of camera shake. Long exposures can emit very creative effects plus blurring the rush of water down a waterfall, or capturing the trail of car headlights along a road at night.
Using a tripod also offers you the plus of capturing the ambient light which is often very appealing and you also can avoid the harsh gloom and red eye stimulate which is one of the downsides of the in built flash.
Digital photography tipped # 5- Avoid excessive JPEG compression
Digital cameras allocate you to limited the resolution of each likeness to ensemble the necessary harvest, so understanding resolution and smooth magnitude is very important to your digital photography.
For printing and enlarging the photo, you should capture at the chief resolution unfilled in the camera. The record resolution employs a low reading or no compression of the sleeve, so the maximum total of information is retained.
This also means that it requires more recall so fewer metaphors can be stored on the cameras memory license. If you want to storeroom more images on your card, you can select a lesser resolution column with greater amount of JPEG compression. However, this may force on your choices when you desire to harvest the folder.
You may only be able to email the record or announce it on a website as it is too small to imprint. If you do photocopy the low res icon it may look pixilated without much detail or roughness, which has low visual draw.
If you desire to rearrange your image in postproduction, you will require to capture the supreme resolution free as editing (cropping, adjusting contrast, brightness etc) will affect a loss in quality.